August 2015 Peace Agreement South Sudan
The UN said thousands of people had taken refuge in UN ties.  Two Indian peacekeepers were killed to protect 36 civilians in Akobo, Jonglei, while being attacked by about 2,000 armed youths from Nuer.  The assailants apparently intended to kill civilians under the protection of the UN base in a step condemned by UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon.  On the international front, following the Juba clashes, the African Union supported plans to send troops from regional nations with a mandate very similar to that of the United Nations Response Brigade, which quickly defeated M23 rebels in the Democratic Republic of Congo, with UN forces currently operating in the country fighting for the protection of the civilian population.  In August 2016, the UN Security Council approved such a force for Juba. At first, the government opposed this approach and said it was in violation of sovereignty.  In a resolution threatening to impose an arms embargo if it blocked the new operation, the government accepted this measure under conditions such as those not from neighbouring countries, claiming that they had interests at stake.  They also accepted a hybrid tribunal to investigate war crimes.  The United States insisted on an arms embargo and sanctions by the Security Council against Machar and army chief Paul Malong Awan, but did not get enough votes to pass in December 2016.   After an independent report on UNAMAS` inability to protect civilians in the Juba clashes, In November, Secretary-General Ban dismissed UN force commander Lt Gen Johnson Mogoa Kimani Ondieki, then Kenya, the general`s native country, declared that he was withdrawing from his key role in the peace process and withdrew his more than 1,000 UNAMAS peacekeeping forces before returning the troops at the beginning of the new UN Secretary-General`s term.  On 30 April 2017, the first group of the Regional Protection Force, led by Brigadier General Jean Mupenzi, arrived from Rwanda with the first phase of troops arriving in August.
 Susan Rice, President Barack Obama`s national security adviser, said the United States hailed the agreement as a “first step” toward ending the conflict, but would do “hard work” to implement the agreement. Tekle, Tesfa-Alem (2015) op. Cit. Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) (2015) Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in South Sudan. Addis Ababa, August 17, 3. While Kiir assured the people of South Sudan that he had “fully committed the government to faithfully implement” the ARCSS, Kiir said in his public statement to the nation on September 15, 2015, about the ARCSS: South Sudanese President Salva Kiir signed a peace agreement with rebels after a threat of UN sanctions. Tekle, Tesfa-Alem (2015) Machar calls on Kiir to abandon his “reservations” for peace in South Sudan. Sudan Tribune, August 28, Available at: www.sudantribune.com/spip.php?iframe&page=imprimable&id_article=56207 [Access July 1, 2016]. On Christmas Eve 2015, Salva Kiir announced that he was moving forward with a plan to increase the number of states from 10 to 28, and then, five days later, he swore to all the new governors he had appointed and considered loyal.
 The new borders give Kiirs Dinkas a majority on strategic sites.  Some observers believe that the government maintains the peace agreement to maintain international aid while supporting campaigns to strengthen the Dinka`s control over land and resources traditionally held by other groups.  In July 2016, when most of Shilluk Agwelek`s troops joined the SPLM-IO that concluded the peace agreement with the government, some Schilluk felt dissatisfied.